The influence of these cultures can be seen in objects, such as oil lamps, made and used throughout the Empire. It is thought that the city-state of Rome was initially formed by Latium villagers joining together with settlers from the surrounding hills in response to an Etruscan invasion.
See Article History Roman Republic, the ancient state that centred on the city of Romefrom the time of the events leading up to the founding of the republic in bce, through the establishment of the Roman Empire in 27 bce.
A brief treatment of the Roman Republic follows. For full treatment, see ancient Rome. The early historical record The early Roman Republic — bce and the preceding regal period — bce are the most poorly documented periods of Roman history.
Historical writing in Rome did not begin until the late 3rd century bce, when Rome had already completed its conquest of Italyestablished itself as a The republican period of roman history power of the ancient world, and become involved in a gigantic struggle with Carthage for control of the western Mediterranean.
Consequently, over time, historical facts about early Rome suffered from patriotic reinterpretation involving exaggerations of the truth, the suppression of embarrassing facts, and invention. According to tradition, the first six kings had been benevolent rulers, but the last was a cruel tyrant who was overthrown by a popular uprising.
The prevalent modern view is that the monarchy at Rome was incidentally terminated through military defeat and foreign intervention.
This theory sees Rome as a site highly prized by the Etruscans the people of the central Italian region of Etruria in the 6th century bce. Yet before Porsenna could establish himself as monarch, he was forced to withdraw, leaving Rome without a king. Rather than restoring their king, the Romans replaced the kingship with two annually elected magistrates called consuls.
During the early Roman Republic, important new political offices and institutions were created, and old ones were adapted to cope with the changing needs of the state.
According to the ancient historians, these changes and innovations resulted from a political struggle between two social orders, the patricians and the plebeiansthat began during the first years of the republic and lasted for more than years.
In times of military emergency, when unity of command was sometimes necessary, Rome appointed a dictator in place of the consuls, who, however, could not hold supreme military command for longer than six months.
The Senatewhich may have existed under the monarchy and served as an advisory council for the king, now advised both magistrates and the Roman people. Although in theory the people were sovereign and the Senate only offered advice, in actual practice the Senate wielded enormous power because of the collective prestige of its members.
During the republic there were two different popular assemblies, the centuriate assembly and the tribal assembly. The centuriate assembly was military in nature; it voted on war and peace and elected all those magistrates who exercised imperium military power. The tribal assembly was a nonmilitary civilian assembly that elected those magistrates who did not exercise imperium.
It did most of the legislating and sat as a court for serious public offenses. In bce Rome received its first written law codeinscribed upon 12 bronze tablets and publicly displayed in the forum.
Its provisions concerned such matters as legal proceduredebt foreclosure, paternal authority over children, property rightsinheritanceand funerary regulations.
This so-called Law of the Twelve Tables was to form the basis of all subsequent Roman private law. The expansion of Rome During the 6th century bce, Rome became one of the more-important states in Latium —owing to the achievements of its Etruscan overlords—but Tibur TivoliPraenesteand Tusculum were equally important Latin states.
Although the Latins dwelled in politically independent towns, their common language and culture produced cooperation in religion, law, and warfare. This cooperation has come to be known as the Latin League. The Latin states occasionally waged war among themselves, but in times of common danger they banded together for mutual defense.
Toward the end of the 5th century bce, the Romans began to expand at the expense of the Etruscan states, possibly propelled by population growth.
Before Roman strength increased further, a marauding Gallic tribe swept down the Po River valley and sacked Rome in bce; the invaders departed, however, after they received a ransom in gold. When Rome became increasingly dominant in the Latin League, the Latins took up arms against Rome to maintain their independence.
Rome was now the master of central Italy and spent the next decade pushing forward its frontier through conquest and colonization. After three wars against the Samnites in the north the third in — bce and the Pyrrhic War — bce against Greek towns in the south, Rome was the unquestioned master of Italy.
The ensuing battles, known as the Punic Warsspanned the years — bce. Two great military geniuses were among the leaders in these wars. Hannibal led the Carthaginian forces from about towhen he was defeated by the Roman commander Scipio Africanus the Elder. The Romans occupied Carthage and eventually destroyed it completely in The western Mediterranean during the Punic Wars.
To the east, the Romans defeated SyriaMacedoniaGreeceand Egyptall of which had until then been part of the decaying Hellenistic empire. The Romans also destroyed the Achaean League and burned Corinth bce.
Won through massive effort and with inevitable losses, the newly acquired lands and diverse peoples populating them proved a challenge to govern effectively.
The Romans organized the conquered peoples into provinces —under the control of appointed governors with absolute power over all non-Roman citizens—and stationed troops in each, ready to exercise appropriate force if necessary.
In Rome proper, the majority of citizens suffered the consequences of living in a nation that had its eyes invariably trained on the far horizon.
Roman farmers were unable to raise crops to compete economically with produce from the provinces, and many migrated to the city.Roman Republic: Roman Republic, The early Roman Republic (– bce) and the preceding regal period (– bce) are the most poorly documented periods of Roman history. Historical writing in Rome did not begin until the late 3rd century bce.
Roman mosaic was a minor art, though often on a very large scale, until the very end of the period, when late-4th-century Christians began to use it for large religious images on walls in their new large churches; in earlier Roman art mosaic was mainly used for floors, curved ceilings, and inside and outside walls that were going to get wet.
A History Of Roman Literature: The Republican Period [Wilhelm Sigmund Teuffel, Wilhelm Wägner] on timberdesignmag.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This is a reproduction of a book published before This book may have occasional imperfections such as missing or blurred pagesAuthor: Wilhelm Sigmund Teuffel, Wilhelm Wägner.
“Beginning with Augustus, the emperors of the imperial period made full use of [sculpture’s] potential as a tool for communicating specific ideologies to the Roman populace.”.
The development of Roman portraiture is characterized by a stylistic cycle that alternately emphasized realistic or idealizing elements. Each stage of Roman portraiture can be described as alternately “veristic” or “classicizing,” as each imperial dynasty sought to emphasize certain aspects.
Gruen, Erich S. Culture and National Identity in Republican timberdesignmag.com, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, Kleiner, Diana E.
E. Roman timberdesignmag.com Haven: Yale.