Teaching contextual factors

Elksnin and Nick Elksnin Strategies teachers can use to teach parents to teach their children to be prosocial are described.

Teaching contextual factors

Table of Contents Chapter 3. Immediate Instructional Adjustments Based on Assessed Performance In the immediate instructional adjustment application of formative assessment, teachers gather assessment evidence, analyze that evidence, and change their teaching tactics if a change is warranted right then, within the same class session.

The focus here, in Chapter 3, will be immediate adjustments based on data gathered via fairly conventional kinds of classroom assessments.

Implementation Considerations It is difficult to argue with the instructional virtues of immediacy; any sort of self-correcting system is certain to work better if along-the-way corrections are made as quickly as possible.

If the data indicate that students are getting what the teacher thinks they should be getting at this stage in the instruction, then the natural conclusion is that instruction is working pretty well.

No change is required, and the class session can continue as planned. It Teaching contextual factors definitely time for the teacher to invoke the hoped-for virtues of Instructional Plan B, Plan C, or whatever other approach the teacher may have ready to go.

These alternate plans typically entail either more instruction or different instruction—and sometimes both.

Teaching contextual factors

But flipping from fantasy to reality, a real-world teacher must prepare for any kind of en-route evidence gathering and also be ready to make immediate instructional adjustments depending on the nature of the Teaching contextual factors collected.

That kind of preparation takes time, and plenty of it. It means having to identifying when to assess students—that is, at which point in an instructional sequence and how often in an instructional sequence. As you can see, good teachers must be very deliberate about choosing to use this particular application of formative assessment lest they become overwhelmed and disenchanted.

When to collect assessment evidence. How often—and at which points during the instructional plan—will assessment evidence be collected?

How many items to include in the assessment. What number of test items will be sufficient to accurately measure student mastery of each subskill or body of knowledge being assessed?

When to make an instructional adjustment. What performance level will signal the need for an instructional adjustment? What kind of instructional adjustment to make. This means setting aside pencil-and-paper quizzes and the like in favor of evidence-gathering that can be done with just a few questions and a visual survey of student responses.

The teacher presents a question orally, on the chalkboard, or via a projection device.

Incidental teaching

Based on the ratio of correct responses to incorrect responses, the teacher decides whether an instructional adjustment is in order. However, the yes-or-no question format does have its drawbacks. Binary-choice test items, if not created with care, can easily slip into measuring nothing more than memorized information and, thus, encourage student thinking at lower rather than higher levels of cognition.

Elsewhere Popham,I have described how to create binary-choice items that elicit more than merely memorized information. As its name implies, a letter-card system requires the teacher to provide students with pieces of cardstock often standard index cards, white and approximately 5 by 8 inches in sizeon which are printed large letters of the response options the teacher wants students to be able to make.

Teaching contextual factors

The most common use of letter-cards involves letters A to E, and some teachers include a question mark card students can use to indicate uncertainty. A teacher may design multiple-choice items to tease out very finely shaded pictures of understanding via answer-options that convey subtle differences in "correctness.

Another consideration, which applies to any kind of selected-response test item, is that reliance on a letter-card technique does restrict a teacher to presenting questions for which students select an answer from presented options rather than being obliged to generate their answers "from scratch.

We see this when students must be able to coalesce apparently disparate dollops of information into some kind of brand new cognitive casserole. To find out how well students can do such coalescing on their own, letter-cards are simply inadequate. This third quick-assessment technique is the answer when a teacher seeks a constructed response.

Students respond to teacher questions by writing a word or a brief phrase on individual, tablet-sized, erasable whiteboards, and then present their answers in the usual way when the teacher calls for "Whiteboards up! The challenge of using whiteboards is that the teacher must limit questions to those that can be answered satisfactorily through a single word or short phrase.

Remember, the teacher is looking to gather data on student understanding via a quick visual scan. To sum up, then, the questions a teacher needs to ask when facing this choice-point are "How much preparation time do I have? When to Collect Assessment Evidence As stated, I believe teachers must collect assessment evidence for each building block in the learning progression they are using— optimally, near the conclusion of instruction focused on the building block, but while there is still some time available for any assessment-dictated adjustments to right instructional wrongs.

Certain data-gathering techniques are higher on the "hassle index" than others.Just-in-time teaching (often abbreviated as JiTT) is a pedagogical strategy that uses feedback between classroom activities and work that students do at home, in preparation for the classroom meeting.

The goals are to increase learning during classroom time, to enhance student motivation, to encourage students to prepare for class, and to allow the instructor to fine-tune the classroom. FIT-Choice Project: Factors Influencing Teaching Choice. The 'FIT-Choice' project is our large-scale longitudinal program of research which investigates motivations for selecting teaching as a career, teaching self-efficacy and experiences of beginning teachers.

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES FOR BRAILLE LITERACY Diane P. Wormsley and Frances Mary D'Andrea, Editors REPRINTS Determining the Reading Medium for Students with Visual Impairments: A Diagnostic Teaching Approach*.

For the past decade, social studies, history, government, geography, and civics have been relatively neglected subjects in our school systems. Because they are not required to be tested through the No Child Left Behind legislation, these subjects have appeared less.

Strategies & Techniques for Teaching Culture

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES FOR BRAILLE LITERACY Diane P. Wormsley and Frances Mary D'Andrea, Editors REPRINTS Determining the Reading Medium for Students with Visual Impairments: A Diagnostic Teaching Approach*.

English: Strategies for Teaching Limited English Proficient (LEP) Students A Supplemental Resource Guide to the K English Standards of Learning.

Immediate Instructional Adjustments Based on Assessed Performance