Expressions may be combined using the following operators, listed in decreasing order of precedence:
Creating R packagesPrevious: Writing R documentation filesPrevious: The R distribution itself includes about 30 packages.
In the following, we assume that you know the library command, including its lib. See Add-on-packages in R Installation and Administration. Other types of extensions are supported but rare: Some notes on terminology complete this introduction.
These will help with the reading of this manual, and also in describing concepts accurately when asking for help. A package is a directory of files which extend R, a source package the master files of a packageor a tarball containing the files of a source package, or an installed package, the result of running R CMD INSTALL on a source package.
On some platforms notably macOS and Windows there are also binary packages, a zip file or tarball containing the files of an installed package which can be unpacked rather than installing from sources. A package is not 1 a library. The latter is used in two senses in R documentation.
A directory into which packages are installed, e. Installed packages may contain compiled code in what is known on Unix-alikes as a shared object and on Windows as a DLL.
The concept of a shared library dynamic library on macOS as a collection of compiled code to which a package might link is also used, especially for R itself on some platforms.
On most platforms these concepts are interchangeable shared objects and DLLs can both be loaded into the R process and be linked againstbut macOS distinguishes between shared objects extension.Welcome to the Directives Division homepage.
The Directives Division administers and operates the DoD Issuances Program, the DoD Information Collections Program, DOD Forms Management Program, GAO Affairs, and the DoD Plain Language Program for the Office of the Secretary of Defense.
What is Bash?
Bash is the shell, or command language interpreter, for the GNU operating system. The name is an acronym for the ‘Bourne-Again SHell’, a pun on Stephen Bourne, the author of the direct ancestor of the current Unix shell sh, which appeared in the Seventh Edition Bell Labs Research version of Unix.
Bash is largely compatible with sh and incorporates useful features from the. World war 1 assignment gas mask costume.
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Acknowledgements. The contributions to early versions of this manual by Saikat DebRoy (who wrote the first draft of a guide to timberdesignmag.com timberdesignmag.comal) and Adrian Trapletti (who provided information on the C++ interface) are gratefully acknowledged.
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