The letters J, U, and W of the modern alphabet were added in medieval times, and did not appear in the classical alphabet, except that J and U could be alternative forms for I and V. A comparison of the Greek and Latin alphabets shows the close relation between the two.
Latin-alphabet handwriting To understand the development of modern Western calligraphy it is important to survey historical writing styles—some of which profoundly influenced subsequent work—as well as how the materials of writing have been used.
Most calligraphy is done with pen and ink on paper or parchment, although brushes and chisels are also used for making large letters on various surfaces.
Later judgments about how the tip of a pen usually a quill or reed was cut, the angle at which it was held, and the formation of individual letters are conjectures based on the evidence of images of people writing, subsequent calligraphic practices, and the letters themselves.
Very few artifacts and no treatises on the practice of writing are known to have existed before the 15th century, although instructions and descriptions of quill cutting published in the 16th century probably reflect long-standing practices.
Ancient Roman styles Rustic capitals The Latin and vernacular handwriting of western Europe descends in a nearly unbroken line to the present day from the 1st century ad. The script used throughout the Roman Empire for books and latin writing alphabets for formal documents is known as rustic capitals.
The pen used to write this script was cut with a broad end and held so that its thickest strokes fell at an oblique, nearly perpendicular angle to the line of writing. As is the case for most formal alphabets, the pen was lifted from the writing surface to make the serifs and other strokes for each single letter.
The rustic alphabet consists only of capital, or majusculeletters, most of which are contained between a single pair of horizontal lines. The letters B, L, and F are sometimes taller than the other capitals to distinguish them latin writing alphabets R, I, and E, which are similar in appearance.
Courtesy of the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana This elaborate script, whose letter forms were used for inscriptions as well as manuscripts, is called rustic only by comparison with the magnificent square capitals typical of Roman imperial inscriptions. Both styles existed simultaneously, but very few manuscripts written in square capitals survive from ancient times.
Square capitals, which require many more separate marks to make a single letter, are more often seen on inscriptions cut with a chisel that copied letters designed with a brush. Brushes were also used for large writing such as that seen in the graffiti in Pompeii. Cursive capitals The business hand of the 1st century, used for correspondence and for most documents, private and official alike, is known as cursive capitals.
Here the pen, cut to a narrow point, was held at an oblique angle similar to that used for rustic capitals, but the pen was lifted less often and the writing was faster. This cursive handling led to new and simpler letter forms such as two strokes for D three strokes and two strokes for E four strokes.
Some of these new forms are in effect minuscule, in that parts of them ascend or descend beyond a pair of lines that define the height of letters such as n or x e. Cursive capitals were also sometimes joined to following letters, further reducing the number of times the pen was lifted during the writing.
This Roman style is hardly considered a calligraphic script, but it demonstrates how a formal alphabet was modified through rapid writing. Cursive capitals, contract for sale of a slave, ad ; in the British Museum, London Pap. Courtesy of the trustees of the British Museum From the 2nd to the early 4th century, parchment was replacing papyrus as the standard writing material for books, and the codex was replacing the roll as their standard form.
The evidence that survives from this period, during which biblical and other Christian literature was beginning to be copied extensively, is fragmentary, and its interpretation is still controversial. The main line of development, however, is clear enough.
|Archaic Latin alphabet||In general the Romans did not use the traditional Semitic -derived names as in Greek:|
|Keep Exploring Britannica||W originated as a doubled V VV used to represent the sound [w] found in Old English as early as the 7th century. It came into common use in the later 11th century, replacing the runic Wynn letter which had been used for the same sound.|
|Versions of the Latin alphabet||Of all the accomplishments of the ancient Middle East, the invention of the alphabet is probably the greatest.|
|In general the Romans did not use the traditional Semitic -derived names as in Greek: This scheme has continued to be used by most modern European languages that have adopted the Latin alphabet.|
|Since then it has had many different forms, and been adapted to write many other languages. According to Roman legend, the Cimmerian Sibyl, Carmenta, created the Latin alphabet by adapting the Greek alphabet used in the Greek colony of Cumae in southern Italy.|
It was probably the use of a straight pen that produced, for example, the conversion of cursive capital axis oblique into the fully minuscule d axis vertical. Uncialshalf uncials, and cursive minuscule For the 4th and 5th centuries, the evidence is more abundant, and it is known that two new book hands and a new business hand came into use.
The older of the book hands, called uncials a name given this style by the 17th-century French paleographer Jean Mabillonwas originally written with a square-edged pen, perhaps cut at an oblique angle; but, from the 6th century onward, a pen without an oblique cut seems to have been used, leading to a rounder-looking letter.
Although they incorporate several cursive letter forms, h and introduce two forms peculiar to this type of alphabet, uncials generally constitute a capital alphabet similar to Greek capitals of the 4th century, such as those seen in the Codex Sinaiticus.
P and F are the only letters that consistently descend below the writing line. It survived the collapse of the Roman book trade. And, after the 6th century, when the production of all books, pagan as well as Christian, was taken over by the church—notably by the monasteries, such as the Vivarium founded in southern Italy by Cassiodorusa scholar whose aim was to perpetuate Roman cultureand the houses that observed the Rule of St.
Benedict—uncial script survived in many centres, especially for biblical and liturgical texts, down to the 9th century. Thereafter, like rustic capitals, uncials were used only for titles, and they, too, disappeared in the 12th century.
The younger of the two new book hands is called half uncial. This script was less popular than uncials and never broke their monopoly on biblical and liturgical texts, although, like uncial script, half uncial was still being written in the 8th century and even, as a display script, in the 9th century.
Half uncial differs from early uncial script in its minuscule appearance; only one letter N remained more or less unchanged from the capital form.
The distinguishing letter forms in half uncial are a, b, d, g, h, l, m, r, and s. There was no attempt to confine letters between a single pair of lines, as they had gained distinctive ascenders and descenders.
Courtesy of the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan The new business hand of the 4th century and after is known as cursive minuscule. Like cursive capitals, it was written with a pointed pen, but the pen was held more or less straight. It uses basically the same letter forms as half uncials, although the frequency in cursive minuscule of ligatures between letters tends to conceal the fundamental likeness between the two hands.
The letter forms that distinguish cursive minuscule and half uncials from rustic and cursive capitals and from uncials were developed during the obscure period between the 1st and 4th centuries. The question of whether these forms developed in the sphere of the book hands or of the business hands is still undecided, but, whatever their origin, their importance for the subsequent history of European handwriting is paramount.
They provided the material on which the Carolingian minusculewhich first appeared in the late 8th century, was based, and that script including its modifications dominated Europe until the end of the Middle Ages.
Only in one other period were new letter forms evolved, between the 13th and the 15th centuries, in the group of scripts known as Gothic cursives; and the influence of these late innovations was ultimately canceled out, thanks to the revival of Carolingian minuscule in a pure form by the Italian humanists at the beginning of the 15th century.Jul 02, · Latin alphabet, also known as the Roman alphabet, is a writing system originally used to write the Latin Language.
The Latin alphabet evolved from the visually similar Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet. The Latin script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet, and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Latin script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system  and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70 per cent of the world's population).
The Romans developed the alphabet we still use today. In this lesson we will introduce the Romans and ask how their alphabet got to us. After completing this lesson the students will be able to: Show that the Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans lived in the Mediterranean area. Say that the Romans had a.
Latin language (Lingua Latina) In the 5th century BC, Latin was just one of many Italic languages spoken in central Italy. Latin was the language of the area known as Latium (modern Lazio), and Rome was one of the towns of Latium. whereas in the Latin alphabet, the third letter is a C, and G is the 6th letter of the Latin alphabet.
Latin: 1st Letter = A, 2nd = B, 3rd = C, 4th = D, 5th = E, 6th = G This shift resulted from changes to the Latin alphabet over time. The Cumae form of the Greek alphabet was carried over by Greek colonists from Euboea to the Italian peninsula, where it gave rise to a variety of alphabets used to inscribe the Italic languages.
One of these became the Latin alphabet, which was spread across Europe as the Romans expanded their empire.