But it remained for the Jews, with their unqualified capacity for falsehood, and their fighting comrades, the Marxists, to impute responsibility for the downfall precisely to the man who alone had shown a superhuman will and energy in his effort to prevent the catastrophe which he had foreseen and to save the nation from that hour of complete overthrow and shame. By placing responsibility for the loss of the world war on the shoulders of Ludendorff they took away the weapon of moral right from the only adversary dangerous enough to be likely to succeed in bringing the betrayers of the Fatherland to Justice. All this was inspired by the principle—which is quite true within itself—that in the big lie there is always a certain force of credibility; because the broad masses of a nation are always more easily corrupted in the deeper strata of their emotional nature than consciously or voluntarily; and thus in the primitive simplicity of their minds they more readily fall victims to the big lie than the small lie, since they themselves often tell small lies in little matters but would be ashamed to resort to large-scale falsehoods. It would never come into their heads to fabricate colossal untruths, and they would not believe that others could have the impudence to distort the truth so infamously.
Does Wikipedia Tell the Truth? Those of us who have been teaching for a while will no doubt remember the moment when we first learned of Wikipedia. In my case, it was a student in a historical methods class who proclaimed the news—a new on-line encyclopedia that anyone can amend or edit.
Like many, I first reacted with incredulity. So this is what the world has come to, I thought. Anyone can be an expert and broadcast delusions to the world at large via the internet. I told my students that under no circumstance did I want to see them consulting such a dubious source of knowledge.
At some point not too long after I delivered that stern injunction to my students, I found that I myself was relying on Wikipedia. It started turning up when I searched the internet and as I followed the links I found pages that allowed me to orient myself almost instantaneously on topics about which I knew very little.
Whether it was a band I had just heard on the radio, or some obscure piece of historical minutia, there was enough seemingly accurate information on Wikipedia to slake my curiosity and provide leads for further inquiry.
Now, far from castigating my students who use Wikipedia, I encourage them to consult it—with the proviso, of course, that it should be a starting point for research, not a final destination. According to the commonly accepted narrative enshrined in textbooks for almost a century, on May 4th at Haymarket Square in Chicago, police attacked a peaceful gathering of striking workers fighting for the eight hour day.
In the pandemonium that followed, a bomb went off killing several officers. The police retaliated with live ammunition leaving four dead and scores wounded. In the aftermath, the authorities choose to place full responsibility on the radicals.
A group of Anarchist leaders were arrested, subjected to a sham trial, and several were hanged despite the fact that no evidence was presented linking them to the crime. Messer-Kruse has been studying the Haymarket events for at least a decade, and out of his engagement with the sources a very different version of events has arisen, one that directly contradicts the accepted narrative.
The crowd of striking workers, Messer-Kruse suggests, may not have been so peaceful after all. A number were armed and eyewitnesses reported gunshots emanating from the crowd as well as from police lines. The trial too was hardly the travesty it is generally made out to be.
Over the course of 6 weeks, over witnesses testified presenting evidence of violent conspiratorial activity in which anarchist leaders participated.
Among the witnesses was a chemist who undertook a path-breaking forensic analysis that linked the bomb thrown at the demonstration with bomb-making material found at the home of one of the defendants. Whether all of the convictions were justified is an open question, but blame for the outcome can at least in part be placed on the defense attorneys who opted for political grandstanding rather than mounting an effective defense for their clients.
Having achieved this new understanding of the Haymarket affair, Dr. Messer-Kruse thought he might perform a useful service by correcting some of the misinformation contained in the corresponding Wikipedia article. But no sooner did he start to change some of the more obvious inaccuracies, when he found himself firmly rebuffed.
Within minutes his edits were reversed and the text reverted back to its initial state. Wikipedia editors explained their actions by alluding to the lack of proper citations.
This came as a surprise to Mellor-Kruse who had in fact provided citations via his personal blog back to the trial transcript and other primary sources.
But primary sources, it turned out, are not considered authoritative on Wikipedia. What was needed were citations to secondary works—accounts by established historians, properly vetted and published in reputable venues, in short, precisely the works Messer-Kruse was challenging.
Even the appearance of Dr. One editor explained that if 99 historians claimed the sky was green in and one said it was blue, blue skies would be acknowledged only as a minority interpretation.
Verifiable assertion is the standard to which Wikipedia aspires—not truth itself. It was only when Dr. Messer-Kruse published an article in the Chronicle of Higher Education recounting his experience that a serious discussion began on the Wikipedia talk pages and changes were made.
It is easy to understand Dr.The Origin of Philosophy: The Attributes of Mythic/ Mythopoeic Thought.
The pioneering work on this subject was The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man, An Essay on Speculative Thought in the Ancient Near East by Henri Frankfort, H.A. Frankfort, John A.
Wilson, Thorkild Jacobsen, and William A.
Irwin (University of Chicago Press, , -- also once issued by Penguin as Before Philosophy). This website provides responsible criticism of the 9/11 Commission Report by senior military, intelligence and government officials.
It provides experienced professional opinions about the terrorist attacks on the world trade center and the pentagon.
Go to 20th Century tongues refuted section. Go to Start. Sometimes Truth makes Love hurt "You are seeking to kill Me, a man who has told you the truth" Jn Epistemology.
Epistemology is the study of timberdesignmag.commologists concern themselves with a number of tasks, which we might sort into two categories. First, we must determine the nature of knowledge; that is, what does it mean to say that someone knows, or fails to know, something?
This is a matter of understanding what knowledge is, and how to distinguish between cases in which someone. Pontius Pilate was a prefect of Rome and governor of Judea from about AD. Despite being identified in the Bible and several other documents in ancient literature, his existence was not accepted by secular historians until when a limestone inscription was found bearing his name and relating him to the reign of Tiberius who was Caesar .
In the last few years, and most recently as her campaign heated up, we’ve seen Hillary Clinton engage in some bizarre behavior. From coughing fits and bouts of rage to uncontrollable laughter and overreaction to external stimuli, Paul Joseph Watson investigates what may be behind her odd demeanor. Does History Tell Us the Truth? What is history? The study of the Human past Branch of Knowledge Dealing With Past Events A chronological record of significant events (as affecting a nation or institution) often including an explanation of their causes The Knowledge Issue Does History Tell Us the Truth or is History Misleading? Perjury is the intentional act of swearing a false oath or falsifying an affirmation to tell the truth, whether spoken or in writing, concerning matters material to an official proceeding. In some jurisdictions, contrary to popular misconception, no crime has occurred when a false statement is (intentionally or unintentionally) made while under oath or subject to penalty. Instead, criminal.
Does History Tell Us the Truth? What is history? The study of the Human past Branch of Knowledge Dealing With Past Events A chronological record of significant events (as affecting a nation or institution) often including an explanation of their causes The Knowledge Issue Does History Tell Us the Truth or is History Misleading?