Speaking from more than 40 years of experience in the field—and speaking for all learners who hope to succeed, the teachers who want them to succeed, and the local school leaders whose aspirations for success have been thwarted by assessment traditions—Stiggins maps out the adjustments in practice and culture necessary to generate both accurate accountability data and the specific evidence of individual mastery that will support sound instructional decision making and better learning in the classroom. He addresses Assessment purpose—how and why to clarify the reason for every assessment and the users it will serve.
Description[ edit ] This very brief description is based primarily on the most recently published description of the PAS  although there is no disagreement with other descriptions. Furthermore, these traits can be modified through learning to such an extent that some might be nearly opposite to the original genetic direction.
There is an additional dimension related to psychological energy. In the theory, gender and age also affect the final personality description.
The first dimension is Internalizer-Externalizer which is an ability to manipulate internal stimuli or symbols without being distracted by the external world. This is similar, but not identical, to the familiar introversion-extroversion dimension.
The internalizer relies more on his own experience and internal landscape and is likely to be less active than externalizers.
The externalizer is dependent on input from the outside and is more dependent on relating for the sake of relating.
Gittinger called this the intellectual dimension. The Regulated-Flexible dimension can be viewed by thinking of a regulated person as one who can see details Assessment system a whole, but not the whole. The regulated person is more stimulus bound and less able to see the "big picture".
The regulated person is more procedurally oriented and emotionally insulated. The flexible person is involved with relationships and has attention diverted from step by step procedures. In Assessment system, the regulated person has a high sensory threshold which is therefore satisfied less often than a flexible person.
Gittinger called this the procedural dimension. It is thus a social dimension. The behavior related to this dimension is generally without awareness. The adaptable person easily plays a variety of roles, being charming and moving easily in many different situations always making good first impressions.
The role uniform person is able to handle only a few social roles at best and is often said to be socially inept. The behavior is most apparent in new social situations, since the role uniform may comfortable and accepted in a very familiar situation. The role adaptive can suffer from making good first impressions and then not understanding the unrealistic expectations others place upon him.
Gittinger called this the social dimension. As the environment places demands upon a person to learn to compensate for weaknesses, the person may compensate to such an extent as to actually appear to have the opposite primitive trait.
For example, a primitive externalizer may compensate and appear more as an internalizer. However, there are differences between an uncompensated primitive externalizer and a compensated internalizer. The compensated adjustment is a more tense adjustment and requires more rehearsal and more display of consistency.
Also, a person who is compensated often reacts negatively to seeing their primitive trait displayed in others. A person may compensate in none, one, two or all three dimensions.
The PAS calls the adjustment including compensation the basic level. The PAS defines an additional level of adjustment called the contact or surface level.
At the surface level, there are four possible adjustments. A person who is not compensated may either become modified, that is, attempt to display the opposite of their primitive trait on the surface or they may remain completely uncompensated and unmodified, retaining their primitive trait.
A person who is compensated at the basic level may revert towards their primitive trait on the surface this is called a controlled adjustment or continue to move towards the opposite this is called a repressed adjustment. A person makes adjustments in all three dimensions independently.
For example, a person might have a modified adjustment in one dimension, a controlled adjustment in another, and a repressed adjustment in the third.
A key feature of the PAS is that the profile of a particular person may be derived from their scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The development of the PAS actually began when John Gittinger noticed certain behaviors which seemed to relate to subtest scores on the Wechsler.
Over the years, as he observed many people, he developed the full theory and the method of translating Wechsler scores into PAS profiles. Many refinements in the method used to produce PAS profiles from Wechsler scores were made with the method and one much older method the most extensively used by psychologists using the PAS.
Applications[ edit ] The PAS has been used for many applications over the years. A sample of applications include education, career analysis, self-help, and intelligence gathering. DuVivier  discusses the importance of working with individual differences when analyzing college student success and drop-out rates with particular attention to avoiding drop-out.
Downs  studied college students majoring in mathematics and mathematics education. In the study, most students in both groups were primitive regulated, in fact, compensated regulated. Pure mathematics majors tended to be primitive and basic role uniform whereas mathematics education majors tended to be primitive role adaptive.The Online Assessment System (formerly known as the CRCT Online System) enables students in Georgia's public schools to access tests that consist of the same kinds of questions as appear on two of Georgia's end-of-year assessments, the Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT), the End of Course Tests (EOCT), the Georgia High School Graduation Tests (GHSGT), and the Georgia Writing .
6 DESIGNING AN ASSESSMENT SYSTEM. In this chapter, we turn to the question of how to design a full assessment system and consider the components that should be included to adequately evaluate students’ science achievement.
WestEd and CRESST, two national leaders in the standards and assessment field, continue their collaboration in providing high-qualty research support and technical assistance to states as the Center on Standards and Assessment Implementation (CSAI).
Read chapter 6 Designing an Assessment System: Assessments, understood as tools for tracking what and how well students have learned, play a critical role.
§ Provides reliable assessment instruments with consistent meaning. § Reduces duplication and enhances communication and sharing of information. § Gathers information regarding potential barriers to treatment.
|Assessment Systems Corp | Adaptive Testing, Psychometrics, & eAssessment||These Principles provide a vision of how to transform assessment systems and practices as part of wider school reform, with a particular focus on improving classroom assessment while ensuring large-scale assessment also supports learning. To best serve learning, assessment must be integrated with curriculum and instruction.|
|Involvement||These Principles provide a vision of how to transform assessment systems and practices as part of wider school reform, with a particular focus on improving classroom assessment while ensuring large-scale assessment also supports learning. To best serve learning, assessment must be integrated with curriculum and instruction.|
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|The Online Assessment System||Special Features Assessment System The unit has developed an assessment system with its professional community that reflects the conceptual framework s and professional and state standards.|
§ Creates a system that expands as the Offender moves through different processing stages. Welcome to FranklinCovey's Online Assessment System Your gateway to achieving organizational greatness through great leaders, effective individuals, and focused execution.